Understanding how estate planning documents work is central to creating an estate plan for each individual’s unique situation. An estate planning attorney needs to know the details of your life, not because they’re nosy. It is because this is how they can create a plan tailored to protect you during your lifetime, plan for long-term care and distribute assets upon your death. A recent article, “Understanding estate planning documents” from Lake Country Record-Bee, explains in broad strokes what each estate plan needs to include.
The will nominates an executor to administer the decedent’s estate, including the distribution of specific gifts and other assets. Depending on your state of residence, the will must be witnessed by one or two people who have no interest in the outcome of your will. At death, the distribution of assets only applies to those in the estate and not to those who receive property transferred under a trust, through a designation of death beneficiary form or a joint tenancy title.
A trust controls and manages assets placed in the trust during life and after death. Assets held in a living trust are used to avoid conservatorships, should become incapacitated during life. Assets in trusts do not go through probate.
Assets transferred into a living trust must belong to the person to establishes the trust, known as the settlor. A married couple may establish a joint trust to receive community property, if they live in a community property state. Each spouse may choose to transfer his or her own separate property assets into a joint trust, or keep their separate property assets in separate trusts.
Trust assets are titled for ownership and control to the trustee. The trustee is a fiduciary, meaning they are the legal representative of the trust and administer the provisions of the trust as directed in the trust documents.
You should always have a successor trustee for a trust, who takes office when the last initial trustee resigns, becomes incapacitated, or dies. How and when the transfer to the successor trustee takes place is included in the trust documents. Some trusts include a specific method to fill a trustee vacancy, if no nominated successor trustee accepts the role.
Living trusts can be changed by the settlor. The incapacity or death of the settler makes a living trust an irrevocable trust. A joint trust, however, sometimes allows either settlor acting alone to amend the living trust. Your estate planning attorney will help you determine whether a joint trust makes sense for your family.
Powers of attorney (POA) allows a person (the principal) to authorize another person (the agent) to act as a representative over some or all of the principal’s own legal and financial affairs. The POA does not have any power over a trust; the trustee is in charge of the trust. A POA can be effective on signing or effective upon incapacity of the principal. POA forms do not always reflect specific individual wishes, so it’s best to have one created by an estate planning attorney.
The Advance Health Care Directive (AHCD) delegates authority to an agent to make decisions and act on the principal’s needs in health care. The AHCD must be created and be in place before incapacity occurs. An incapacitated person cannot sign legal documents.
Reference: Lake County Record-Bee (Feb. 18, 2023) “Understanding estate planning documents”