It happens way more often than you’d ever expect. The account owner dies, the assets go directly to the beneficiaries on the account, and the heirs learn for the first time that whatever is in the will doesn’t override the beneficiary designation. They can argue and even go to court, but it won’t do them much good, says the recent article “Don’t accidentally leave your estate to the wrong person” from The News-Enterprise.
One of many examples, is the widower who remarries after his first wife passes away. He neglects to change his IRA beneficiary form, so when he dies, his second wife does not receive any funds. The case of what happens to the funds has to go to court, because the assets obviously cannot go to his deceased first wife.
Many different kinds of accounts now have beneficiary designations. They include:
- S. Savings Bonds
- Bank Accounts
- Certificates of Deposits
- Investment Accounts
- Life Insurance
- Retirement Accounts
Some of these accounts can be titled “Payable on Death” or “Transferable on Death,” so that they can more easily be distributed to heirs without going through probate.
If you’ve changed jobs, remember that beneficiary designations do not transfer over, when you roll your 401(k) over to a new plan or IRA.
Here’s another thing most people don’t know about beneficiary designations: they don’t have to be individuals. Beneficiaries can be trusts, charities, organizations, your estate, or, no one at all (although that’s not recommended). Be careful, though, if you are thinking about being creative, like saying “All of my living grandchildren.” What if someone who your family has never met, comes forward and claims to be a grandchild? It’s best to discuss this with an estate planning lawyer.
There are situations where you don’t want to name someone as a beneficiary. You don’t want to leave assets outright to minors, since they cannot inherit property. A court-appointed guardian would have to be named to care for the assets, until the child reaches age 18. Then the 18 year old inherits everything at once and goes on a wild spending spree, and the money is gone. A better approach is to set up a trust, so the trust is the beneficiary of the assets and the trust pays money to heirs over an extended period of time.
Caution must be taken, when considering Special Needs Individuals. If they are receiving government benefits, an inheritance could cause them to lose all benefits. Instead, speak with your estate planning attorney about the use of a Special Needs Trust or Supplemental Needs Trust.
Updating the beneficiary form is simple. Contact the financial company that holds the accounts, ask for a copy of your current beneficiary form, and a blank copy so that you can make changes, if needed. Keep a copy of all current beneficiary forms. You should also speak with your estate planning attorney to make sure that your estate plan and your beneficiary designations work together.
Reference: The News-Enterprise (November 30, 2019) “Don’t accidentally leave your estate to the wrong person”