What is the Purpose of an ILIT?

Life insurance falls into two categories: life insurance and death insurance. Life insurance is used to take advantage of the tax-free returns that qualifying insurance products enjoy under federal income tax laws. There is a death component. However, the main purpose is to serve as a tax-deferred investment vehicle. Death insurance is used to provide financial security for loved ones after the owner passes, with little or no regard for tax and investment benefits.

Using both types of life insurance in estate planning can be a complicated process, but the resulting financial security is well worth the effort, as reported in a recent article “Keeping an Eye on ILITs” from Financial Advisor.

The Irrevocable Life Insurance Trust is a somewhat complex trust structured under state trust law and tax strategies under federal income tax laws. ILITs have been tested in court cases, audits and private letter rulings, so an estate planning attorney can create an ILIT knowing it will serve its intended purpose.

Life insurance in an ILIT is owned outside of the estate and enhances the after-estate tax wealth for the surviving spouse and heirs. Because the trust is irrevocable, the transfer of ownership is permanent.

The annual insurance premium is typically paid by the insured to the ILIT, subject to “Crummey” withdrawal powers, named after a famous case, which gives named people the power to withdraw all or a portion of the contributed premium amounts within specified periods. The time frame depends on the trust—usually it’s 30 or 60 days, but sometimes it’s annually.

There are many nuances and details.  The ILIT lets an insured buy life insurance “outside of their estate” for estate tax purposes, lets the person treat insurance premiums as non-taxable gifts under the annual exclusion provisions and provides safety and security to the beneficiaries.

The ILIT is often used as part of a buy-sell agreement for privately held family businesses to make it possible for the business itself or business partners to buy out the equity of a deceased partner. The payment obligations may be funded by the proceeds from life insurance. In some cases, each partner buys a traditional insurance policy in an ILIT. The estate planning attorney working on a succession plan can provide advice on the most effective way to use the ILIT.

Another use for the ILIT is for wealthy families with illiquid assets, like an art collection or a large real estate portfolio. An ILIT holding a life insurance policy with a death benefit lets the beneficiaries use the proceeds to pay estate tax liabilities, without dipping into their own or the estate’s assets. The investment returns of the ILIT increase the policy owner’s wealth substantially, without increasing their taxable estate.

Reference: Financial Advisor (December 1, 2021) “Keeping an Eye on ILITs”

Stretch Out IRA Distributions, Even Without ‘Stretch’ IRA

It’s sad but true: the SECURE Act took away the long lifetime stretch that so many IRA heirs enjoyed. It was a great efficiency tool for family wealth transfer, but there are ways to fill the gap. A recent article “3 Strategies That Dry Your Stretch IRA Tears” from InsuranceNewsNet.com explains what to do now that IRAs need to be cashed out within ten years of the original owner’s death.

There are a number of tax-efficient planning opportunities, falling into three basic categories: wealth replacement with life insurance, Roth planning and charitable opportunities.

The life insurance policy is straightforward: parents buy life insurance to close the gap between what the IRA could have been, if it had been stretched out over the heir’s lifetime. For parents who are in a lower tax bracket than their children, it might make sense for parents to take distributions out of their IRA and buy insurance with after-tax dollars. This method may also present an opportunity for parents to purchase life insurance with long-term care protection, if they have not already done so.

The “Slow Roth” strategy is for families who might not think they can benefit from a Roth, but they can—just not all at once. By converting an IRA to a Roth IRA over time, only in amounts that keep parents in the same tax bracket, and paying taxes on the conversion slowly and over time, the Roth IRA can be built up so when it is inherited, even though it has to be taken out within ten years after your death, it is income tax free.

The third strategy is for families already planning on making charitable gifts. A Qualified Charitable Distribution, or QDC, lets the owner make distributions directly from their IRA to qualified charities, up to $100,000 annually. Remember that the distribution must go directly to the charity and it cannot be used for a donation to a donor-advised fund or private foundation. Your estate planning attorney will be able to help determine if your charity of choice qualifies.

Finally, you can name a Charitable Remainder Trust as an IRA Beneficiary. This is not a do-it-yourself project and mistakes can be costly. By naming a CRT as a beneficiary of your IRA, you avoid taxes on the entire lump sum when the trust liquidates the IRA. At the same time, the income beneficiary of the trust can receive income from the CRT over their lifetime or a term that you determine. It can’t be more than twenty years from the date of death, but twenty years is a long time. The payments from the trust will be treated as taxable income, so be sure that this will work for the recipient. If you accidentally push them into a higher tax bracket, they may not be quite as grateful as you wanted.

Reference: InsuranceNewsNet.com (Oct. 28, 2020) “3 Strategies That Dry Your Stretch IRA Tears”