What to Leave In, What to Leave Out with Retirement Assets

Depending on your intentions for retirement accounts, they may need to be managed and used in distinctly different ways to reach the dual goals of enjoying retirement and leaving a legacy. It’s all explained in a helpful article from Kiplinger, “Planning for Retirement Assets in Your Estate Plan”.

Start by identifying goals and dig into the details. Do you want to leave most assets to your children or grandchildren? Has philanthropy always been important for you, and do you plan to leave large contributions to organizations or causes?

This is not a one-and-done matter. If your intentions, beneficiaries, or tax rules change, you’ll need to review everything to make sure your plan still works.

How accounts are titled and how assets will be passed can create efficient tax results or create tax liabilities. This needs to be aligned with your estate plan. Check on beneficiary designations, asset titles and other documents to make sure they all work together.

Review investments and income. If you’ve retired, pensions, annuities, Social Security and other steady sources of income may be supplemented from your taxable investments. Required minimum distributions (RMDs) from tax deferred accounts are also part of the mix. Make sure you have enough income to cover regular and unanticipated medical, long term care or other expenses.

Once your core income has been determined, it may be wise to segregate any excess capital you intend to use for wealth transfer or charitable giving. Without being set apart from other accounts, these assets may not be managed as effectively for taxes and long-term goals.

Establish a plan for taxable assets. Children or individuals can be better off inheriting highly appreciable taxable investment accounts, rather than traditional IRAs. These types of accounts currently qualify for a step-up in cost basis. This step-up allows the beneficiary to sell the appreciated assets they receive as inheritance, without incurring capital gains.

Here’s an example: an heir receives 1,000 shares of a stock with a $20 per share cost basis valued at $120 per share at the time of the owner’s death. They will pay no capital gains taxes on the gain of $100 per share. However, if the same stock was sold while the retiree owner was living, the $100,000 gain in total would have been taxed. The post-death appreciation, if any, on such inherited assets, would be subject to capital gains taxes.

Retirees often try to preserve traditional IRAs and qualified accounts, while spending taxable accounts to take advantage of lower capital gains taxes as they take distributions. However, this sets heirs up for a big tax bill. Another strategy is to convert a portion of those assets to a Roth IRA and pay taxes now, allowing the assets to grow tax free for you and your heirs.

Segregate assets earmarked for charitable donations. If a charity is named as a beneficiary for a traditional IRA, the charity receives the assets tax free and the estate may be eligible for an estate deduction for federal and state estate taxes.

Your estate planning attorney can help you understand how to structure your assets to meet goals for retirement and to create a legacy. Saving your heirs from estate tax bills that could have been avoided with prior planning will add to their memories of you as someone who took care of the family.

Reference: Kiplinger (May 21, 2021) “Planning for Retirement Assets in Your Estate Plan”

Tackling Estate Plan Quarter by Quarter

Most of us know that a tax bill is typically due on April 15, and we know that our paychecks will include deductions for taxes, Social Security, and IRA or 401(k) contributions. If we are self-employed or retired, we make quarterly estimated tax payments. We plan throughout the year to be better prepared when April 15 comes around. The preparation takes place routinely over time, and the same can be done for estate planning and updating, says a recent article “Make quarterly payments to estate plan” from Victoria Advocate. It’s simple and sensible.

If we can make our plans today to make our eventual passing easier for loved ones and friends, why not divide and conquer, in a quarterly manner? Consider these quarterly “payments” to your estate plan and your family:

First Quarter: Review current estate plans with your estate planning attorney. Don’t have an estate plan? Get started. An estate plan includes a Will, Durable Power of Attorney, Medical Power of Attorney, Directive to Physicians document and any trusts you might need.

The Will, aka Last Will and Testament, is the only one of these documents to be used post-mortem. The will is used to designate an executor to carry out your wishes and designate a person or persons to serve as legal guardians for minor children.

Second Quarter: Let your family know your wishes. Open communication with family members is a gift, so they are not left guessing during critical times. Finding the right words is not always easy, so try writing out your thoughts as you prepare your estate plan. Document your wishes for burial arrangements, information they’ll need for a death certificate or obituary. Do you want to donate your organs, or will your pet need special care? Where are your important papers located? Once you’ve had all the necessary documents created and have thought through these wishes and written a memo about them, let your future executor know what your wishes are, and where they can find the information that they’ll need.

Third Quarter: Do some easy but important estate planning tasks. Review the beneficiaries listed on your accounts. Assets and accounts that pass through beneficiary designations are not controlled by the will, so this is extremely important if it’s been more than a few years since you last reviewed these documents. Your IRA, SEP, 401(k), life insurance and any accounts titled Transfer or Payable on Death probably have beneficiaries listed.

Fourth Quarter: Does your estate plan include a legacy to future generations or charities? Speak with your estate planning attorney about how to pass your estate to children or grandchildren. If you have a unique goal, trusts can be as individual as you are.

As systematically as you pay taxes and bills, work through your estate plan so that you are prepared for the two things we know will occur, regardless of how we feel about them—taxes and death.

Reference: Victoria Advocate (May 8, 2021) “Make quarterly payments to estate plan”

What Is Benefit of a Roth IRA at the Time of Retirement?

It’s been called the gold medal of retirement accounts, and for good reason. The Roth IRA is an excellent tool for savers who want to make the most of money they’ve already paid taxes on to invest in assets to supercharge their investments, says a recent article from The Motley Fool titled “4 Incredible Benefits of a Roth IRA.”

Here’s how to maximize your use of the Roth IRA:

Gain potentially tax-free income during retirement. This is one of the major attractions of a Roth IRA. As long as your income falls below the limits and you’ve earned income during the year, you may continue to contribute to your account, generating more tax-free growth.

When contributions come directly out of a paycheck or are made by you later, you’ve already paid the taxes on the assets that fund the Roth IRA. The funds grow tax-free, and there’s no taxes on withdrawals.

There are, however, limits to your annual contributions. For 2021, the most you can deposit into a Roth is $6,000 for anyone under age 50 and $7,000 if you are 50 plus. You also can’t contribute more than you’ve earned for the year.

There is no tax or penalty to withdrawing, whenever you want. You don’t want to be careless with your retirement accounts, but the flexibility makes the Roth IRA compelling. Let’s say you contribute $5,000 to your Roth and the market soars. Your investment grows to $7,000. And for whatever reason, you’re a little tight on cash. You can take out the original $5,000, whenever you want, tax free. Withdrawing the earnings in the account would trigger taxes and penalties. But the original $5,000 is yours whenever you need it. One more detail: you can’t put that $5,000 back.

No Required Minimum Distributions. When you are in your 70s, and non-Roth accounts require that you take RMDs, you’ll appreciate this more. RMDs are mandated minimum amounts that must be taken from tax-deferred retirement plans. They are considered income and taxable. Too big a withdrawal could also push you into a higher tax bracket. If you are lucky enough to have multiple sources of income and don’t want to take out the withdrawals, well, too bad. That’s the tax law.

With a Roth, you can leave it in the account as long as you like. As long as you qualify, you’re good to save and let the money grow.

Roth IRAs are Easy to Pass to Heirs. If your estate plan includes leaving a legacy and assets to your beneficiaries, your Roth IRA is a solid choice. With no RMDs, you can let it grow for years or decades, and then leave it to heirs through the use of beneficiary designations.

Speak with your estate planning attorney about how the Roth IRA fits into your overall estate plan and complements the trusts and other tools used to maximize your legacy. If you don’t have an estate plan in place, save your heirs from a legal and financial disaster by making an appointment with an estate planning attorney as soon as possible.

Reference: The Motley Fool (April 24, 2021) “4 Incredible Benefits of a Roth IRA”

Can Estate Taxes Be Avoided with a Trust?

If the federal estate tax exemption is lowered, as is expected, it could go as low as $3 million, reports the article “How Trusts Can Be Used To Counter Tougher Estate Taxes” from Financial Advisor. For Americans who own a home and robust retirement accounts, this change presents an estate planning challenge—but one with several solutions. Trusts, giving and updating estate plans or creating wholly new estate plans should be addressed in the near future.

Not that these topics aren’t challenging for most people. Confronting the future, including death and incapacity, is difficult. Adult children and their parents may find it hard to talk about these matters; emotions, death and money are tough to talk about on their own, but estate planning includes conversations around all three.

Once those hurdles are overcome, an unemotional approach to the business of estate planning can accomplish a great deal, especially when guided by an experienced estate planning attorney. Here are a few suggestions for families to consider.

Estate and gift planning techniques include Grantor Retained Annuity Trusts (GRATs) and Spousal Limited Access Trusts (SLATs). A SLAT is an irrevocable trust created when one spouse (the donor spouse) makes a gift into a trust to benefit their spouse (the beneficiary spouse), while retaining limited access to the assets at the same time they remove the asset from their combined estate. One spouse is permitted to indirectly benefit, as long as the couple remains married.

The indirect access disappears, if the spouses divorce or if the beneficiary spouse dies before the donor spouse. Be careful about creating SLATs for both spouses; the IRS does not like to see SLATs with the same date of origin and the same amount for both spouses.

The GRAT and sales to an Intentionally Defective Trust (IDGT) are useful tools in a low-interest rate environment. For a GRAT, property is transferred to a trust in exchange for an annual fixed payment. A sale to an IDGT is where property is sold to a trust in exchange for a balloon note.

Gifting is an important part of estate planning at any asset level. For 2020 and 2021, the annual gift-tax exclusion is $15,000 per donor, per recipient. The simple strategy of aggressive lifetime gifting using that $15,000 exclusion is a good way to get money out of a taxable estate.

Protect the estate plan by reviewing it every four or five years, and sooner if there are large changes to the tax law—which is coming soon—and changes in the family’s circumstances.

Thoughtful use of trusts and gifting strategies can avoid the probate of the will and ensure that assets go directly to heirs. Reviewing the estate plan regularly with an eye to changes in tax law will protect the legacy.

Reference: Financial Advisor (April 19, 2021) “How Trusts Can Be Used To Counter Tougher Estate Taxes”

What Is Family Business Succession Planning?

The importance of the family business in the U.S. can’t be overstated. Neither can the problems that occur as a direct result of a failure to plan for succession. Business succession planning is the development of a plan for determining when an owner will retire, what position in the company they will hold when they retire, who the eventual owners of the company will be and under what rules the new owners will operate, instructs a recent article, “Succession planning for family businesses” from The Times Reporter. An estate planning attorney plays a pivotal role in creating the plan, as the sale of the business will be a major factor in the family’s wealth and legacy.

  • Start by determining who will buy the business. Will it be a long-standing employee, partners, or family members?
  • Next, develop an advisory team of internal employees, your estate planning attorney, CPA, financial advisor and insurance agent.
  • Have a financial evaluation of the business prepared by a qualified and accredited valuation professional.
  • Consider taxes (income, estate and gift taxes) and income requirements to sustain the owner’s current lifestyle, if the business is being sold outright.
  • Review estate planning strategies to reduce income and estate tax liabilities.
  • Examine the financial impact of the sale on the family member, if a non-family member buys the business.
  • Develop the structure of the sale.
  • Create a timeline.
  • Get started on all of the legal and financial documents.
  • Meet with the family and/or the new owner on a regular basis to ensure a smooth transition.

Selling a business to the next generation or a new owner is an emotional decision, which is at the heart of most business owner’s utter failure to create a plan. The sale forces them to confront the end of their role in the business, which they likely consider their life’s work. It also requires making decisions that involve family members that may be painful to confront.

The alternative is far worse for all concerned. If there is no plan, chances are the business will not survive. Without leadership and a clear path to the future, the owner may witness the destruction of their life’s work and a squandered legacy.

Speak with your estate planning attorney and your accountant, who will have had experience helping business owners create and execute a succession plan. Talking about such a plan with family members can often create an emotional response. Working with professionals who benefit from a lack of emotional connection to the business will help the process be less about feelings and more about business.

Reference: The Times Reporter (March 7, 2021) “Succession planning for family businesses”

What Is an Ethical Will?
Mother's Day in elegant type surrounded by pink flowers. ** Note: Shallow depth of field

What Is an Ethical Will?

Scenes like this have taken place across the country since March, and many patients and loved ones have had strained conversations over phone or video calls, struggling to find the right words and hoping that their words can be heard. However, it’s impossible to share all of the family’s thoughts during this most trying of times, says a recent article “The Importance of Writing an Ethical Will—for You and to Those You Love” from The Wall Street Journal.

The increasing interest in estate planning during the pandemic has seen many Americans waking up to the realization they must get their estate plans in order. They focus on preparing wills, health care proxies and powers of attorney, which are important. However, there is another document that needs to be completed. It’s called an “ethical will.”

The ethical will is a statement used to transmit an individual’s basic values, history and legacy they would like to leave behind. It’s usually directed to children and grandchildren, but it can have a larger audience as well, and be shared with the friends who have become like family over a lifetime, or to communities, like houses of worship or civic groups.

The act of writing an ethical will reveals things the writer may not have even been aware of or leads to connections being made that had never been imagined. It is a chance to preserve parts of the person’s history, as well as the history of their ancestors. It is a wonderful gift to share your deepest wishes with those who are so important to you. An ethical will can bond people and generations, whether the letter is shared while you are living or after you have passed and lead to a sense of belonging to something bigger than each individual.

One of the most famous ethical wills was written by Shalom Aleichem, the famous Yiddish writer, and was printed in The New York Times after his death in 1916. While prepared as a last will and testament, it was a wonderful story that shared his values. He suggested that family and friends meet every year on the anniversary of his death, select a joyous story from the many he had written and read it aloud and “let my name be mentioned by them with laughter rather than not be mentioned at all.”

Even those of us who are not skilled writers have thoughts and wishes and history to share with our loved ones. Here are some questions to consider, when preparing your ethical will:

  • Who is it directed to?
  • Were there specific people and events who influenced your life?
  • What family history or stories would you want to pass on to the next generation?
  • What ethical or religious values are important to you?

While you work on completing a new estate plan, or updating an existing plan, take a moment to consider your ethical will and what you would like to share with your loved ones. The time to complete your estate plan and your ethical will is now.

Reference: The Wall Street Journal (Nov. 17, 2020) “The Importance of Writing an Ethical Will—for You and to Those You Love”

Avoid Estate Planning Mistakes

Estate planning should be a business-like process, where people evaluate the assets they have accumulated over time and make clear decisions about how to leave their assets and legacy to those they love. The reality, as described in the article “5 Unfortunate Estate Planning Myths You Probably Believe,” from Kiplinger, is not so straightforward. Emotions take over, as does a feeling that time is running short, which is sometimes the case.

Reactive decisions rarely work as well in the short and long term as decisions made based on strategies that are set in place over time. Here are some of the most common mistakes that people make, when creating an estate plan or revising one in response to life’s inevitable changes.

Estate plans are all about tax planning. Strategies to minimize taxes are part of estate planning, but they should not be the primary focus. Since the federal exemption is $11.58 million for 2020, and fewer than 3% of all taxpayers need to worry about paying a federal estate tax, there are other considerations to prioritize. If there is a family business, for example, what will happen to the business, especially if the children have no interest in keeping it? In this case, succession or exit planning needs to be a bigger part of the estate plan.

The children should get everything. This is a frequent response, but not always right. You may want to leave your descendants most of your estate, but ask yourself, could your lifetime’s work be put to use in another way? You don’t need to rush to an automatic answer. Give consideration to what you’d like your legacy to be. It may not only be enriching your children and grandchildren’s lives.

My children are very different, but it’s only fair that I leave equal amounts to all of them. Treating your children equally in your estate plan is a lot like treating them exactly the same way throughout their lives. One child may be self-motivated and need no academic help, while another needs tutoring just to maintain average grades. Another may be ready to step into your shoes at the family business, with great management and finance skills, but her sister wants nothing to do with the business. The same family includes offspring with different dreams, hopes, skills and abilities. Leaving everyone an equal share doesn’t always work.

Having a trust takes care of everything. Well, not exactly. In fact, if you neglect to fund a trust, your family may have a mess to deal with. A sizable estate may need revocable or irrevocable trusts, but an estate plan is more complicated than trust or no trust. First, when an asset is placed into an irrevocable trust, the grantor loses control of the asset and the trustee is in control. The trustee has a fiduciary duty to the beneficiaries, not the grantor of the trust. The beneficiaries include the current and future beneficiaries, so the trustee may have to answer to more than one generation of beneficiaries. Problems can arise when one family member has been named a trustee and their siblings are beneficiaries. Creating that dynamic among family members can create a legacy of distrust and jealousy.

My estate advisors are all working well with each other and looking out for me. In a perfect world, this would be true, but it doesn’t always happen. You have to take a proactive stance, contacting everyone and making sure they understand that you want them to cooperate and act as a team. With clear direction from you, your professional advisors will be able to achieve your goals.

Reference: Kiplinger (Sep. 17, 2020) “5 Unfortunate Estate Planning Myths You Probably Believe”

An Estate Plan Is Necessary for the Unthinkable

The death of basketball legend Kobe Bryant, his daughter and seven others reminded us that we never know what fate has in store for us. A recent article from The Press Enterprise titled Yes, you must go there: Think about the unthinkable, plan for the worst” explains the steps.

Put an appointment in your schedule. Make an appointment with a qualified estate planning attorney. If you make the call and have an actual appointment, you have a deadline and that’s a start. The attorney may have a planning worksheet or organizer that he or she can send to you to guide you.

Start getting organized. If this seems overwhelming, break it out into separate parts. Begin with the easy part: a list of names, addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses for family members. Include any other people who you intend to include in your estate plan.

Next, list your assets and an estimated value of each. It doesn’t have to be to the penny. Include the account numbers, name of the institution, phone number and, if you have a personal contact, a name. Include bank accounts, real estate holdings, timeshares, stocks, bonds, personal property, vehicles, RVs, any collectibles of value (attach appraisals if you have them), life insurance and retirement accounts.

List the professionals who you rely on—your estate planning lawyer, CPA, financial advisor, etc.

If you own a firearm, include your license and make sure that both your spouse and your estate planning attorney are aware of the information. In certain states, having possession of a firearm without being the licensed owner is against the law. Speak with your estate planning attorney about the law in your state and how to prepare for a situation if the firearm needs to be safely and properly dealt with.

Name an executor or personal representative. Estate planning is not just for death. It is also for incapacity. Who will act on your behalf, if you are not able to do so? Many people name their spouse, a long-time trusted friend or a family member. Be certain that person will be willing to act on your behalf. Have a second person also named, in case something occurs, and your first choice cannot serve.

If you have minor children, your estate plan will include a guardian, who will be responsible for raising them. Talk about that with your spouse and that person to make sure they are willing to serve. You can also name a second person to be in charge of finances for the children. Your estate planning lawyer will talk with you about the role of trusts to provide for the children.

Think about your overall goals. How do you see your legacy? Do you want to leave some funds for a charity that has meaning to you and your family? Do you want your children to receive equal shares of your entire estate? Does one child require special needs planning, or are you concerned that one of your children may not be able to manage an inheritance? These are all topics to discuss with your estate planning attorney. Their experience will help clarify your goals and create a plan.

Reference: The Press Enterprise (Feb. 2, 2020) Yes, you must go there: Think about the unthinkable, plan for the worst”

How Business Owners Undo Their Years of Hard Work

When it comes to preparing for retirement, transitioning their business and putting a succession plan in place, many small business owners simply aren’t realistic, says the article “Business Owners Dream (Wrongly) of an Easy Retirement Transition” from Plan Advisor. While it’s great that they believe in their businesses, by putting every last dollar they have into the business, thinking they will reap the rewards when it’s time to sell, they put themselves in a risky position.

Many small business owners treat their business as their nest egg. That may not be wrong, but if there is no other estate planning or retirement planning, there are a number of ways this could go wrong.

For one thing, it’s not likely that the value of the business at the time of the sale can be guaranteed. What if the value of the business is not as strong as the owner thinks it is? It’s better to have more than a few eggs in a retirement basket, including savings in retirement accounts that provide tax advantages.

The business owner can open a 401(k), SEP-IRA, SIMPLE or a pension plan. Because these types of accounts are tax deferred, the investments can grow while avoiding taxation. The best retirement plan for any small business owner depends upon how much income the business generates, how stable earnings are, how many employees there are and how generous the business owner wishes to be with the full-time employees.

This last factor matters because the law requires most tax-deferred plans to be fair to all employees. A business owner cannot open a 401(k) for themselves and exclude full-time employees. However, the appreciation of employees for having a 401(k) plan should be considered. By investing in an employee retirement plan, and perhaps a matching program, the business becomes more attractive to current and future employees.

Estate planning is a critical piece of the succession plan. A true family legacy plan needs to go beyond defining who will be in charge of the business and estate if the owner dies, and how the business and any other assets will be divided. If there is no will, the state’s laws will govern how assets are divided.

An estate planning attorney who routinely works with business owners will be able to help with the formation of a succession plan, with an eye to fulfilling the owner’s goals for themselves and their family. It should be understood that any succession plan needs to work in conjunction with the overall estate plan, so that both can achieve their respective goals.

For a succession plan to work, it needs to be put into place five to ten years in advance. If a sale of the business is at the heart of the plan, it can take five years to value the businesses’ profitability, formalize the management structure, identify a solid buyer, determine how the transition will be made, etc.

Reference: Plan Advisor (December 12, 2019) “Business Owners Dream (Wrongly) of an Easy Retirement Transition”

Share Your Estate Plan Now to Protect Your Family When You Are Gone

If one child will receive more than his siblings, even though his need is obviously greater, will that shared info create fighting between the children? And should children even have advance knowledge that they are going to receive an inheritance? These are some of the questions examined in the article “Disclosing estate plans in advance can save strife later” from The Indiana Lawyer. In most situations, advance discussions between family members are better to ensure family harmony.

Many estate planning attorneys have the “fair does not always mean equal” discussion with their clients. For some families, there is one child who is in dire need, while the others have prospered and don’t really need help. Maybe one child has special needs, or just hasn’t been as successful in life. In other cases, one child has already received substantial property from the parents, so no portion of the estate will be left to them. Regardless of the circumstances, which vary widely, having a frank discussion with all of the children is better than a series of surprises.

Research from the Federal Reserve Board shows that more than half of any given inheritance equals $50,000 or less, and more than 80% of all inheritances are less than $250,000.

With only half of what most people inherit being generally used to invest or pay down debt, most of these inheritances are spent, invested, or donated.

Regardless of the size of the inheritance, most parents expect that the beneficiaries of their estate will protect and preserve their legacy and use the money wisely. That is not always the case. If the parents want heirs to be careful with inheritances, they need to have a plan that will prepare heirs to act as stewards of their inheritances. The plan may be as simple as a series of conversations about saving and investing, or making charitable donations. It might also be complex, like meeting with the parent’s financial advisor and estate planning attorney and discussing wealth transfer and the potential to grow the wealth for another generation.

Families with larger estates often involve their children in annual gifting to get them used to the experience of receiving significant assets and learning how to manage these gifts. This has the added impact of allowing the parents to see how their children will respond to windfalls, which may guide how they distribute wealth in their estate plan. If one child is a repeat spendthrift, for instance, a trust may be a better way to pass the wealth to the child, with a trustee who can determine when they receive assets.

Families who have worked hard to leave their children with an inheritance, regardless of the size, should prepare their children by teaching them, through the parent’s actions, how their values impact their wealth, and how to manage it for themselves and future generations.

Reference: The Indiana Lawyer (October 16, 2019) “Disclosing estate plans in advance can save strife later”