Do You Need a Power of Attorney?

Did you know estate planning attorneys recommend anyone over age 18 have a power of attorney? Without one, even a long-married spouse may not be able to make financial or medical decisions if their spouse became incapacitated, according to a recent article “How to Set Up a Power of Attorney” from U.S. News & World Report. Naming someone and having the documents created to make them a Power of Attorney (POA) is part of creating an estate plan.

If someone becomes incapacitated, someone else—a family member or the state—has to be able to make decisions on their behalf. People hesitate sometimes, as they’re not sure about giving someone the power to make decisions. However, lacking one leads to problems in emergent situations.

While the 18-year-olds are usually the most upset when they learn their parents wish to be named as their POA, it is because they don’t realize how mom and dad have no legal authority over them once they become legal adults.

State laws vary for powers of attorney, so it is important to work with a local estate planning attorney who can create a POA specific to your needs and following the laws of your state.

How to get started with a Power of Attorney

The first, and possibly hardest, part of a POA is determining who should be named. The individual needs to be responsible, trustworthy and calm in emergency situations. Just because someone is related to you doesn’t necessarily qualify them to serve in this role. You should also name a secondary POA, in case the first is unable or unwilling to act on your behalf.

Next, have your estate planning attorney draft the document, which typically works in connection with other estate planning documents including your will, health care proxy and HIPAA release forms. You should have a Power of Attorney for finances and a Health Care Power of Attorney for medical care.

Be careful about what happens to copies of the documents and where they are stored. Some estate planning attorneys create documents to be stored in a fire and water-proof box at home, in the safety deposit box at a bank, or in the attorney’s fireproof safe. Others say you should never put important documents in a safety deposit box in a bank, because if the documents are needed and the bank is closed, the person won’t be able to step up and act.

The POA needs to be kept up to date, just like any part of your estate plan. Some financial institutions will refuse to honor a POA if they consider it out of date. Every three to five years, this document should be updated. It should also be updated if the person named POA becomes incapacitated, dies, or moves to another state.

Should You Have a Durable Power of Attorney?

Powers of attorney typically end when a person becomes incapacitated, which is exactly when you want to have a POA. A Durable Power of Attorney can make decisions on your behalf, even if you become incapacitated.

What is a Springing Power of Attorney?

Power of attorney for finances or healthcare can be effective immediately when the documents are signed or take effect under predetermined circumstances, such as when the principal becomes incapacitated. This is known as a springing power of attorney because it “springs” into effect at a specific time. It seems like a good idea, but a word of caution: the springing power of attorney requires a doctor’s evaluation of incapacity. This often takes time, which can be the one thing you don’t have in an urgent situation.

Reference: U.S. News & World Report (July 21, 2022) “How to Set Up a Power of Attorney”

Do I Need to Update My Estate Plan?

Given a choice, most people will opt to do almost anything rather than talk about death and life for others after they are gone. However, estate planning is essential to ensure that your life and life’s work will be cared for correctly after you’ve passed, advises the article “Is Your Estate Plan Up to Date?” from NASDAQ.com. If you own any assets, have a family, loved ones, pets or belongings you’d like to give to certain people or organizations, you need an estate plan.

Estate planning is not a set-it-and-forget it process. Every few years, your estate plan needs to be reviewed to be sure the information is accurate. Big life changes, from birth and death to marriage and divorce—and everything in between—usually also indicate it’s time for an update. Changes in tax laws also require adjustments to an estate plan, and this is something your estate planning attorney will keep you apprised of.

Reviewing and updating an estate plan is a straightforward process, once your estate planning attorney has created an initial plan. Keeping it updated protects your wishes and your loved ones’ futures. Here are some things to keep in mind when reviewing your estate plan:

Have you moved? Changes in residence require an update, since estate laws vary by state. You also should keep your advisors, including estate planning attorney, financial advisor and tax professional, informed about any changes of residence. You’d be surprised how many people move and neglect to inform their professional advisors.

Changes in tax law. The last five years have seen big changes in tax laws. Estate plans created years ago may no longer work as originally intended.

Power of Attorney documents. A Power of Attorney authorizes a person to act on your behalf to make business, personal, legal and financial decisions. If this document is old, or no longer complies with your state’s laws, it may not be accepted by banks, investment companies, etc. If the person you designed as your POA decades ago can’t or won’t serve, you need to choose another person. If you need to revoke a power of attorney, speak with your estate planning attorney to do this effectively.

Health Care Power of Attorney and HIPAA Releases. Laws concerning who may speak with treating physicians and health care providers have become increasingly restrictive. Even spouses do not have automatic rights when it comes to health care. You’ll also want to put your wishes about being resuscitated or placed on artificial life support in writing.

Do you have an updated last will and testament? Review all the details, from executor to guardian named for minor children, the allocation of assets and your estate tax costs.

What about a trust? If you have minor children, you need to ensure their financial future with a trust. Your estate planning attorney will know which type of trust is best for your situation.

A regular check-up for your estate plan helps avoid unnecessary expenses, delays and costs for your loved ones. Don’t delay taking care of this very important matter. You can then return to selecting a color for the nursery or planning your next exciting adventure. However, do this first.

Reference: NASDAQ.com (July 28, 2021) “Is Your Estate Plan Up to Date?”

Your Estate Plan is a “Dynamic Document”

One of the most common mistakes people make about their estate planning is neglecting to coordinate all of the moving parts, reports the Dayton Business Journal’s article “Baird expert gives estate planning advice.” The second most common mistake is not thinking of your estate plan as a dynamic document. Many people believe that once their estate plan is done, it’s done forever. That creates a lot of problems for the families and their heirs.

In the last few years, we have seen three major federal tax law changes, including an increase in the federal estate tax exemption amount from $3,500,000 to an enormous $11,580,000. The estate tax exemption is also now portable. Most recently, the SECURE Act has changed how IRAs are distributed to heirs. All of these changes require a fresh look at estate plans. The same holds true for changes within families: births, deaths, marriages and divorces all call for a review of estate plans.

For younger adults in their 20s, an estate plan includes a last will and testament, financial power of attorney, healthcare power of attorney and a HIPAA authorization form. People in their 40s need a deeper dive into an estate plan, with discussions on planning for minor children, preparing to leave assets for children in trusts, ensuring that the family has the correct amount of life insurance in place, and planning for unexpected incapacitation. This is also the time when people have to start planning for their parents, with discussions about challenging topics, like their wishes for end-of-life care and long-term care insurance.

In their 60s, the estate plan needs to reflect the goals of the couple, and expectations of what you both want to happen on your passing. Do you want to create a legacy of giving, and what tools will be best to accomplish this: a charitable remainder trust, or other estate planning tools? Ensuring that your assets are properly titled, that beneficiaries are properly named on assets like life insurance, investment accounts, etc., becomes more important as we age.

This is also the time to plan for how your assets will be passed to your children. Are your children prepared to manage an inheritance, or would they be better off having their inheritance be given to them over the course of several years via a trust? If that is the case, who should be the trustee?

Some additional pointers:

  • Revise your estate plan every three or five years with your estate planning attorney.
  • Evaluate solutions to provide tax advantages to your estate.
  • Review asset titling and beneficiary designations.
  • Make sure your charitable giving is done in a tax efficient way.
  • Plan for the potential tax challenges that may impact your estate

Regardless of your age and state, your estate planning attorney will be able to guide you through the process of creating and then reviewing your estate plan.

Reference: Dayton Business Journal (February 4, 2020) “Baird expert gives estate planning advice”