What Is the Point of a Trust?

A trust is an agreement made when a person, referred to as the trustor or grantor, gives a third party, known as the trustee, the authority to hold assets for the trust beneficiaries. The trustee is in charge of the trust and responsible for executing the trust’s instructions as per the language in the trust, explains a recent article from The Skim, “What is a Trust? (Spoiler: They’re Not Just for the Wealthy).”

Some examples of how trusts are used: if the grantor doesn’t want beneficiaries to have access to funds until they reach a certain age, the trustee will not distribute anything until the age as directed by the trust. The funds could also be solely used for the beneficiaries’ health care needs or education or whatever expense the grantor has named, the trustee decides when the funds should be released.

Trusts are not one-size-fits-all. There are many to choose from. For instance, if you wanted the bulk of your assets to go to your grandchildren, you might use a Generation-Skipping Trust. If you think your home’s value may skyrocket after you die, you might want to consider a Qualified Personal Residence Trust (QPRT) to reduce taxes.

Trusts fall into a few categories:

Testamentary Trust vs. Living Trust

A testamentary trust is known as a “trust under will” and is created based on provisions in the will after the grantor dies. A testamentary trust fund can be used to make gifts to charities or provide lifetime income for loved ones.

In most cases, trusts don’t have to go through the probate process, that is, being validated by the court before beneficiaries can receive their inheritance. However, because the testamentary trust is tied to the will, it is subject to probate. Your heirs may have to wait until the probate process is completed to receive their inheritance. This varies by state, so ask an estate planning attorney in your state.

Living trusts are created while you are living and are also known as revocable trusts. As the grantor, you may make as many changes as you like to the trust terms while living. Once you die, the trust becomes an irrevocable trust and the terms cannot be changed. There’s no need for the trust to go through probate and beneficiaries receive inheritances as per the directions in the trust.

What are the key benefits of creating a trust? A trust doesn’t always need to go through probate and gives you greater control over the assets. If you create an irrevocable trust and fund it while living, your assets are removed from your probate estate, which means whatever assets are moved into the trust are not subject to estate taxes.

Are there any reasons not to create a trust? There are costs associated with creating a trust. The trust must also be funded, meaning ownership documents like titles for a car or deeds for a house have to be revised to place the asset under the control of the trust. The same is true for stocks, bank accounts and any other asset used to fund the trust.

For gaining more control over your assets, minimizing estate taxes and making life easier for those you love after you pass, trusts are a valuable tool. Speak with your estate planning attorney to find out which trust works best for your situation. Your estate plan and any trusts should complement each other.

Reference: The Skim (Oct. 26, 2022) “What is a Trust? (Spoiler: They’re Not Just for the Wealthy)”

Can Trusts Help Create Wealth?

Trusts are the Swiss Army Knife of estate planning, perfect tools for specific directions on how your assets should be managed while you are living and after you have passed. A recent article titled “This Trust Can Help You Create a Financial Dynasty from yahoo! finance explains how qualified perpetual trusts (also known as dynasty trusts) can offer more control over assets than other types of trusts.

What is a Dynasty Trust?

Called a Qualified Perpetual Trust or a Dynasty Trust, this trust is designed to let the grantor pass assets along to beneficiaries in perpetuity. Technically speaking, a dynasty trust could last for a century. They don’t end until several years after the death of the last surviving beneficiary.

Why Would You Want a Trust to Last 100 Years?

Perpetual trusts are often used to keep family wealth out of probate for a long time. During probate, the court reviews the will, approves the executor and reviews an inventory of assets. Probate can be time consuming and costly. the will and all the information it contains becomes part of the public record, meaning that anyone can find out all about your wealth.

A trust is created by an experienced estate planning attorney. Assets are then transferred into the trust and beneficiaries are named. There should be at least one beneficiary and a secondary beneficiary, in case the first beneficiary predeceases the second. A trustee is named to oversee the assets. The language of the trust is where you set the terms for when and how assets are to be distributed to beneficiaries.

Directions for the trust can be as specific as you wish. Terms may be set requiring certain goals, stages of life, or ages for beneficiaries to receive assets. This amount of control is part of the appeal of trusts. You can also set terms for when beneficiaries are not to receive anything from the trust.

Let’s say you have two adult children in their 30s. You could set a condition for them to receive monthly payments from trust earnings and nothing from the principal during their lifetimes. The next generation, your grandchildren, can be directed to receive only earnings as well, further preserving the trust principal and ensuring its future for generations to come.

Dynasty trusts are irrevocable, meaning that once assets are transferred, the transfer is permanent. Be certain that any assets going into the trust won’t be needed in the short or long run.

Be mindful if you chose to leave assets directly to grandchildren, skipping one generation, you risk the Generation Skipping Tax. There is no GST with a dynasty trust.

Assets in a trust are still subject to income tax, if they generate income. If you transfer assets creating little or no income, you can minimize this tax.

Not all states allow qualified perpetual trusts, while other states have used perpetual trusts to create a cottage industry for trusts. Your estate planning attorney will be able to advise the best perpetual trust for your situation.

Reference: yahoo! finance (July 12, 2022) “This Trust Can Help You Create a Financial Dynasty

Will Estate Tax Exemption Change In 2022?

It is possible the proposed clawback regulations from the Treasury may undermine the estate planning you’ve done to address the reduction in estate tax exemptions coming on January 1, 2026. These proposed regulations are not as severe as initially feared, but they do pose a threat to some estate planning, according to a recent article titled “Proposed Clawback Regs May Undermine Some Estate Planning” from Wealth Management.com.

On a positive note, if your estate plan includes a SLAT (Spousal Lifetime Access Trust) or a Self-Settled Domestic Asset Protection Trust (DAPT), the proposed regs shouldn’t prevent you from securing those exemptions, as long as they work with the other aspects of the planning. The proposed regulations are complex and may change the anticipated results of several other estate planning strategies.

When the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 was passed, the federal estate tax exemption doubled from $5 million to $10 million, adjusted for inflation until January 1, 2026, when it ends. Some taxpayers made transfers, usually to irrevocable trusts, to secure the temporarily higher gift, estate, and generation-skipping (GST) exemptions. However, what’s not clear is what happens if the taxpayer who made these gifts dies after the higher exemption ends and the new exemption is considerably lower.

In most, but not all, cases, such gifts won’t be subject to a clawback. However, there are exceptions in the proposed new regulations.

The Treasury is concerned about gifts made where the taxpayer continues to retain control over assets. One example is funding a Grantor Retained Interest Trust (GRIT) so the gift would be deemed made of the entire amount transferred with no reduction for the interest retained because the value of the retained remainder would be zero.

A Preferred Partnership could also be structured that intentionally violated requirements under IRC regulations, so the equity the donor received in the entity would be valued at zero. The taxpayer would have retained a preferred interest and the trust would be set up so the entire value would be treated like a gift when family members acquired the common interests. The gift exemption would be secured and the Preferred Partnership interest would be included in the taxpayer’s estate, but the exemption would be preserved.

These types of transactions are the targets of the proposed regulations. Several types of transfers won’t benefit from the anti-clawback rule, so the lower exclusion at death and not the higher exclusion that was thought to have been secured will still be available.

Your estate planning attorney has been following the efforts of the Treasury to provide anti-abuse regulations. A review of your estate plan is always a good idea, but with these changes coming, it would be wise to evaluate your estate plan to see if any planning needs to be revised. There may be newer, better options.

Reference: Wealth Management.com (May 3, 2022) “Proposed Clawback Regs May Undermine Some Estate Planning”