Some States Have Tough Estate and Inheritance Taxes

For now, most people don’t have to be scared of federal estate taxes. In 2022, only estates valued at $12.06 million or more for an individual ($24.12 million or more for a married couple) need to pay federal estate taxes. Even better for the very wealthy, there’s no federal inheritance tax for heirs who reside in such lofty economic brackets, notes the recent article titled “States with Scary Death Taxes” from Kiplinger.

By definition, estate taxes are paid by the estate and based on the estate’s overall value, while inheritance taxes are paid by the individual who inherits property, assets, or anything else of value. This isn’t to say “regular people” don’t need to worry about death taxes. We do, because states have their own estate taxes, and a few still have inheritance taxes.

A number of states eliminated estate taxes in the last ten years or so, in an effort to keep retirees from leaving and heading to places like Florida, where there’s no estate tax. However, a dozen states and the District of Columbia still have estate taxes, six states have an inheritance tax and one has both an estate and inheritance tax: Maryland.

Here’s how some state taxes look in 2022:

Connecticut has an estate tax, with an exemption level at $7.1 million. However, there is no inheritance tax. The Nutmeg state is the only state with a gift tax on assets gifted during one’s life.

The District of Columbia has an estate tax, with an exemption level of $4 million.

Hawaii’s estate tax exemption level is $5.49 million., one of the higher state estate tax exclusions, and is not adjusted for inflation.

Illinois’s estate tax is $4 million, but there’s no inheritance tax. It’s known as one of the least taxpayer friendly states in the country for retirees.

Iowa is phasing out inheritance taxes, but this doesn’t take effect until 2025. In the meantime, there’s no estate tax, and if the estate is valued at less than $25,000, there’s no inheritance tax. No taxes are due on property inherited by a lineal ascendent or descendent, but for other family members, the taxes range from 8%—12%.

There’s no estate tax in Kentucky. However, depending upon your relationship to the person who died and the value of the property, the inheritance tax is 4% to 16%.

Maine has an estate tax exemption of $5.87 million, but no inheritance tax.

Maryland’s has both an estate tax exemption of $5 million and a flat 10% inheritance tax.

Massachusetts has no inheritance tax and a $1 million estate tax exemption.

Minnesota has a low estate tax exemption of $3 million. Any taxable gifts made three years prior to death are included.

New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Oregon, Vermont and Washington have no inheritance taxes, while Pennsylvania has no estate tax but does have an inheritance tax.

It’s not necessary to move purely to avoid estate or inheritance taxes. An experienced estate planning attorney uses strategic tax planning as part of an estate plan, minimizing tax liability and preserving assets.

Reference: Kiplinger (July 29, 2022) “States with Scary Death Taxes”

When are You Required to File a Gift Tax Return?

The IRS wants to know how much you’re gifting over the course of your lifetime. This is because while gifts may be based on generosity, they are also a strategy for avoiding taxes, including estate taxes, reports The Street in a recent article “Do I Need to File a Gift Tax Return?”

Knowing whether you need to file a gift tax return is relatively straightforward. The IRS has guidelines about who needs to file and who does not. Your estate planning attorney will also be able to guide you, since gifting is part of your estate and tax planning.

If you give a gift worth more than $16,000, it is likely you need to file a gift tax return. Let’s say you gave your son your old car. The value of used cars today is higher than ever because of limited supply. Therefore, you probably need to file a gift tax return. If the car title is held by you and your spouse, then the car is considered a gift from both of you. The threshold for a gift from a married couple is $32,000. Make sure that you have the right information on how the car is titled.

What if you added a significant amount of cash to an adult child’s down payment on a new home? If you as a member of a married couple gave more than $32,000, then you will need to file a gift tax return. If you are single, anything over $16,000 requires a gift tax return.

529 contributions also fall into the gift tax return category. Gifts to 529 plans are treated like any other kind of gift and follow the same rules: $16,000 for individuals, $32,000 for married couples.

What about college costs? It depends. If you made payments directly to the educational institution, no gift tax return is required. The same goes for paying medical costs directly to a hospital or other healthcare provider. However, any kind of educational expense not paid directly to the provider is treated like any other gift.

Do trusts count as gifts? Good question. This depends upon the type of trust. A conversation with your estate planning attorney is definitely recommended in this situation. If the trust is a “Crummey” trust, which gives the beneficiary a right to immediately withdraw the gift put into the trust, then you may not need to file a gift tax return.

A Crummey trust is not intended to give the beneficiary the ability to make an immediate withdrawal. However, the withdrawal right makes the gift in the trust a “current gift” and it qualifies for the annual exclusion limit. Recategorizing the gift can potentially exempt the person giving the gift from certain tax obligations. Check with your estate planning attorney.

Even when filing a gift tax return, the amount of tax being paid is usually zero. This is because the gifts are offset by each person’s lifetime exemption. The IRS wants these returns filed to keep track of how much each individual has gifted over time. Unless you are very wealthy and making gift transfers from a family trust or to family members, it is not likely you will ever end up paying a tax. You are, however, required to keep the IRS informed.

Reference: The Street (March 31, 2022) “Do I Need to File a Gift Tax Return?”